Native American Cultural Resources

Government Resources

2008 Department of Interior Turners Falls NRHP Decision (Redacted)

Native American Traditional Cultural Landscapes, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP)

Ceremonial Stone Landscapes-National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (National Park Service)

Ceremonial Stone Landscapes of New England and Developing Best Practices to Assess Submerged Paleocultural Landscapes

Bulletin 38-Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties, National Park Service

Harvey, H. (July 22, 2020). Finding meaning in stone. Blog of the Pennsylvania State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved from

Research and Preservation Efforts

Nolumbeka Project

Manitou Hassannash Preserve, Hopkinton, Rhode Island

Sacred Ceremonial Stone Landscapes in Rhode Island

NEARA OSL Dating Project: The New England Antiquities Research Association reports on its multi-site, multi-state study of suspected Indigenous stone groupings, using Optically-Stimulated Luminescence, a scientific dating methodology for stone structures. Results show multiple sites were likely built prior to European Contact. 

Hidden Landscapes Documentary Film Series on Ceremonial Stone Landscapes and New Archaeological Developments in the Northeast. Films are available for online streaming rental at

Voluntary Guidelines for Assessing Traditional Sacred Sites

Native Land Conservancy

Tribal Resources

United Southern and Eastern Tribes History Home Page

Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs: Includes more links to state Tribes and Councils.

Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)

Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe

Nipmuc Nation

Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck Tribal Council

Recommended Bibliography

Brooks, L. (2008). The common pot: The recovery of Native space in the Northeast. University of Minnesota  Press.

Brooks, L. (2018). Our beloved kin: A new history of King Philip's War. Yale University Press.Bruchac, M.M. (2004

Bruchac, M.M. (2004).  Abenaki connections to 1704: The Sadoques family and Deerfield, 2004. In Captive histories: Captivity narratives, French relations and Native stories of the 1704 Deerfield raid. E. Haefeli & K. Sweeney, eds., University of Massachusetts Press, pp. 262-278. Retrieved from

Bruchac, M. & Thomas, P. (2006). Locating “Wissatinnewag” in John Pynchon’s letter of 1663. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 34, pp. 56-82.

Bruchac, M.M. (2011). Revisiting Pocumtuck history in Deerfield: George Sheldon's vanishing Indian act. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 39 (1-2), 30-77. Retrieved from

Bruchac, M.M. & Hart, S.M. (2012). Materiality and autonomy in the Pocumtuck homeland. Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, 8, pp. 293-312.

Bruchac, M.M. (2014). Indigenous knowledge and traditional knowledge, Chapter 10. In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. C. Smith (ed.). Springer Science and Business Media.

Bruchac, M.M. (n.d.) Schaghticoke and points north: Wôbanaki resistance and persistence. Raid on Deerfield: The Many Stories of 1704. Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association/Memorial Hall Museum. Retrieved from

Cachat-Schilling, R. (Fall, 2017). Quantitative assessment of stone relics in a western Massachusetts town. Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, 77, pp. 37-54.

Cachat-Schilling, R. (2018). Assessing stone relics in western Massachusetts part II: patterns of site distribution. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut, 80, 109–128.

Feathers, J. & Muller, N. (2020). Optically stimulated luminescence dating of a probable Native American cairn and wall site in Eastern Pennsylvania. North American Archaeologist. 

Gage, M.E. & Gage, J.E. (2015). A handbook of stone structures in Northeastern United States. Powwow River Books.

Gage, M. New England Native American Spirit Structures, Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Spring, 2013

Gould, D.R., Herbster, H., Pezzarossi, H.L., & Mrozowski, S.A. (Eds.) (2020). Historical archaeology and Indigenous collaboration: Discovering histories that have futures. University Press of Florida.

Hoffman, C. (2018). Stone prayers: Native American stone constructions of the eastern seaboard. Arcadia Publishing.

Lavin, L. (2013). Connecticut's Indigenous peoples: What archaeology, history, and oral traditions teach us about their communities and cultures. Yale University Press.

Mavor, J.W. & Dix, B.E. (1989). Manitou: The sacred landscape of New England’s native civilization. Inner Traditions International.

Moore, C.M., & Weiss, M.V. (2016). The continuing "stone mound problem: Interpreting the ambiguous rock piles of the Upper Ohio Valley. Journal of Archaeology, 4:39-71.

O’Brien, J.M. (2010). Firsting and lasting: writing Indians out of existence in New England. University of Minnesota Press.



Return to Historical Commission Home Page